The Character of CreationDiscovering the relationship between Biblical creation and modern scientific discoveries
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Chapter Summaries:

Chapter Contents:
(Scripture quotations from the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible.)

"The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork."(Psalm 19:1) (KJV)

This chapter discusses historical development of science in the West and how it had predominantly Judeo-Christian roots. This is accompanied by a review of the relationship between science and Christian faith, and of some of the thematic content of the various chapters.

Chapter 1. The Ordinances of the heavens
"Knowest thou the ordinances of the heaven? canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth?"  (Job 38:33)

"Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God." (Psalm 9:2)

This chapter introduces the notion that there are overarching laws of physics that were actually set there by the Creator and their presence is stated in the Bible.

Chapter 2. Design
"So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." (Gen. 1:27)

"Hast thou not heard long ago, how I have done it; and of ancient times, that I have formed it?" (Isaiah 37:26)

There is extremely strong scientific evidence that design of a very precise nature has pervaded the creation since its inception.  Several examples such as the likelihood of the initial phase state of the universe and the improbability of life arising by chance are presented.  A brief introduction is given to William Dembski's explanatory filter for reliably detecting instances of events or objects resulting from either chance, law or design.

Chapter 3: God and Gravity 
"He ... hangeth the earth upon nothing." (Job 26:7)

The God of the Bible is the God of the whole universe and rules over its laws. When Christ said "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.  But the very hairs of you head are all numbered.  Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more vaue than many sparrows..."  (Matthew 10:29), He clearly was teaching us to trust God and not live life in fear of its circumstances, but He also used an analogy that included God's providence acting within and through the laws of nature.

Chapter 4: Windows of Vision

"For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face..." (1 Corinthians 13:12)

Our natural perceptions of electro-magnetic radiation (light) are extremely wonderful and an amazing gift from God.  However, we see only a small fraction (from about .4 to .7 millionths of a meter) of the actual electromagnetic spectrum.  Our perceptions are affected by the resolution and sensitivity or our eyes and also of any sensing mechanism that we use.  

Chapter 5: The Delicate Balance

"For he looketh to the ends of the earth, and seeth under the whold heaven;
To make the weight for the winds; and he weigheth the waters by measure." (Job 28:24-25)

"To him that by wisdom made the heavens; for his mercy endureth forever." (Psalm 136:5)

"For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the Lord; and there is none else." (Isaiah 45:18)

The constants of nature appear to be excquisitely fine tuned.  This includes the speed of light, force strengths of gravity, the strong, weak and electro-magnetic forces, the fine structure constant, and others.  There is no known law of nature that explains the fine tuning, in which the values of physics are perfectly set for life. Such fine tuning points to the fact that God "formed" the earth "to be inhabited" as stated by the prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 45:18).

Chapter 6: The Obedient Creation
" right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together." (Isaiah 48:13)

"And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still.  And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.  And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that you have no faith?"  (Mark 4:39-40).

"Now in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went to them, walking on the sea." (Matthew 14:25)

The creation is not in rebellion against God, nor is it indifferent to his rule.  It is interesting to consider how many of the miracles of Jesus convey His mastery over the laws of nature.  For example, the changing of the water to wine at the marriage at Cana, Jesus' first public miracle, may seem innocuous enough, perhaps almost like a magic trick, but no chemist of today or any other day could perform what Jesus accomplished on that day.  Christ, without fanfare or any difficulty whatever, changed the elemental components of water to those of wine.  The words of the Bible treat this miracle as a significant event, indicating that in performing this act Jesus "manifested forth His glory" (John 2:11 (KJV)).  We can observe that to accomplish this miracle required absolute supremacy by Christ over the very laws of nuclear physics!  This miracle was an unmistakable demonstration of Jesus's ability to dominate the essential elements of this world, and it is in His demonstration of superiority over the natural laws themselves that the Scripture gives us one of the compelling proofs of Jesus Christ's divinity.  It is as the Author of these laws that He can change and overrule them by command and will.

Chapter 7. Precept Upon Precept
"For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept,
line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little:" (Isaiah 28:10)

There are varying degrees of understanding of the natural world.  The laws of physics apply broadly, but many particulars must be understood for specific areas of science.  The book discusses the flight of the hummingbird as an example of a marvelous work of God's creation that requires knowledge of Newton's laws to understand at a fundamental level of force, but the mechanics of flight are highly specialized for this marvelous bird.

Chapter 8. The Unique Creation

"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." (Genesis 1:27)

Nature did not create itself.  That this is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics is discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 9. A Higher View

"For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the Lord; and there is none else."  (Isaiah 45:18)

Modern atheistic thinkers have dictated that the Earth and the universe are average, whatever that is.  A philosophical term for this view is encapsulated in the so-called "Copernican principle", which by analogy to Copernicas' theory that removed Earth from the center of the Universe, also tries to remove any specialness from Earth.  This is a mere theory, and a bad one, in light of both Scripture and modern astronomy, both of which point to a very special place for Earth in the scheme of things.

Chapter 10. The Skillful Creation
"To him that by wisdom made the heavens: for his mercy endureth for ever."  (Psalm 136:5)

In this chapter I discuss some of the evidence from cosmology and astronomy that supports the assertion that the Earth is indeed very special, and resides in a Universe that was designed with extreme skill and wisdom by our Creator.  This is in opposition to the notion that the Earth is average and resides in an average, chance based universe.

Chapter 11. The Praising Creation
"And when was come nigh, even now at the descent of the mount of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the might works that they had seen;
Saying, blessed by the King that cometh in the name of the Lord:
peace in heaven, and glory in the highest.
And some of the pharisees from among the multitude said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disciples.
And he answered and said unto them, I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out." (Luke 19:37-40)

"Praise ye the Lord.  Praise ye the Lord from the heavens.  Praise Him in the heights.
Praise ye him, all his angels.  Praise ye him, all his hosts.
Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light.
Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens.

The creation is absolutely subject to the Creator, and to His purposes.  In some profound manner there is built into the essence of creation the mandate to "Praise Him", the "Him" (see Psalm 148:1-4) being the Creator Himself.  This concept is not scientific in the sense that our Western culture regards science, and yet it is true according to Biblical revelation.  The apprehension of the praising creation is only by faith.  This truth extends beyond mere metaphor, which perhaps applies in part to Psalm 19:1, but evidently is more literal than that, as Christ seems to be rebuking the Pharisees who were objecting to actual praise, with the declaration that the stones would supply such praise if the multitude in attendance that day did not.  This chapter discusses this aspect of the creation.

Chapter 12. The Complexity Chasm

"To whom will you liken me, and make me equal, and compare me, that we may be like?"  (Isaiah 46:5)

A notion of a very simple cell was part of the intellectual framework upon which the Darwinian model was invented. Such a notion lent substance to a chance based arrival of the cell, life, and the world of nature.  However, modern biochemistry has revealed an immense, absolutely huge, amount of complexity within each cell.  The chasm of complexity between the nonliving and living worlds is not explained satisfactorily by natural causes. 

Chapter 13: The Aging Creation

"Of old thou hast laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the work of thy hands.
They shall perish, but thou shalt endur: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed:" (Psalm 102:25-26)"

"For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now."  (Romans 8:22)

The creation is aging. A modern scientific concept of the second law of thermodynamics entails the increase in entropy, or disorder, as physical processes proceed in the course of time.  THis principle was in no way obvious to scientists for many years, and was only understood as a scientific theory in the 1800s.  The aposle Paul and the writer of Psalm 102 both make statements that predict and describe this fundamental physical process of "aging"  and travailing.  The Biblical description is entirely accurate physically, and contradicted ancient Aristotelian notions of the stasis of heavenly bodies.  The universe and the Earth are certainly aging as Psalm 102 predicts.  The Earth is not young from any measurable scientific perspective including geologic age and methods based on radioactive element decay. This does not contradict Biblical Scripture.  As for the future, Christians look for "new heavens and a new earth" as predicted by Isaiah the prophet (Isaiah 65:17).

Chapter 14. The Conservative Creation
"...but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.
And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;
and the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man." (Genesis: 2:20-22)

The laws of physics give high status to notable conservation laws.  Conservation of mass was hit upon by Lavoisier in the late 1700s.  It would appear that at times the Creator, although able to create at will, chooses to use what He has already made in some creative way rather than re-create entirely from nothing.  The story of the loaves and the fishes (Matthew chapter 14 and John chapter 6) indicates that Jesus, although surely able to make fish and bread at will, instead chose to multiply existing bread and fish, and then was interested that none be wasted.  In the biological kingdom we see conservation of design in many areas of the animal and plant kingdoms, sometimes appearing in ways that contradict evolutionary theory such as so called "convergent evolution", which name applies to structures and functions that are extremely similar but are not posited, even by evolutionists, to have arisen by common descent. 

The Bible tells us that "The Lord is ...not williing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance." (2 Peter 3:9)

Chapter 15: The Dust of Creation
"for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." (Genesis 3:19)

The dust or dirt that we are made up of is indeed quite common, but has secluded within its molecular structures a vast richness of quality with regard to its specific chemical potentialities.  The properties of the various combinations of elements continue to be studied vigorously by chemists.  Perhaps they could also be termed "dustologists".  The discoveries of chemistry and biochemistry of life-supporting molecules and systems point, at least in the opinion of this author, in the direction of a purposeful creation with respect to life supporting properties and characteristics. 

Chapter 16. The Rational Universe
"Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow..." (Isaiah 1:18)

Rational: "Relating to, or based on, or agreeable to reason." (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)

Modern science takes the position, almost without questioning, that the world is orderly, comprehensible, and accessible to human reason.  In Genesis 15:5 we are told of an incident between the Lord and Abram.  Scripture tells us "And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now towards heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be." (Genesis 15:5).  The command by the Lord implies the ability of Abram to apply a form of reason, "to number them", in the process of his observation and examination of the stars. 
There is an inherent order and structure in the physical world.  However, there is no a-priori reason, from a purely naturalistic point of view, that this should be so.

Chapter 17: The Causal Creation
"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."  (Genesis 1:1)

"Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear."  (Hebrews 11:3)

The opening words of the Bible do not explain God; they explain the heavens and the earth.  According to the Bible, God caused all things to exist.  Modern cosmology is in agreement with an origin of all matter, space, energy and time about 14 billion years ago, but cannot explain the cause of this creation event.  Even the theories that try to point to a quantum type of event to explain our universe cannot explain the cause or source of existence of the quantum vacuum or the laws of physics that govern it.  The universe at the moment of creation evidently had extremely low entropy or high order, leading to forward-in-time cause and effect processes in the macro world of physics, even though the classical laws of physics are bi-directional with respect to time. Such extremely high initial order in also unexplained by physical law, and points to an extremely wise and powerful Creator.

Chapter 18. Home Sweet Home
"He watereth the hills from his chambers: the earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy works.
He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth food out of the earth;"  (Psalm 104:13-14)

The earth's habitability for human (and mammalian) life may (and most likely is) be unique in the universe, so many and narrow are the requirements for a life-friendly planet.  This chapter discusses the vast differences between Earth and the planets in our own solar system, and some of the scientific bases for evaluating the requirements for a planet that could possibly support advanced life.

Chapter 19: Purposes of Creation

"And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from darkness: and God saw that it was good." (Genesis 1:16-18)

"Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ:
According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:
Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,..."  (Ephesians 1:3-5)

There are specific Biblical purposes for the primary heavenly bodies including the sun, the moon and stars.  The sun truly does "rule the day", providing tremendous amounts of light and heat for the earth.  There are also pervasive purposes of mentioned in Genesis 1:14 the pertain to "seasons", "days" and "years".  Astronomers have discovered that the moon contributes to these areas by stabilizing the tilt of the earth and helps control the tides.  The seasons would be quite askew without the moon.  The realm of nature works for man's benefit, according to the purposes that were established by the Creator.

Chapter 20: The Uncreative Creation

"Does the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?"  (Job 39:26)

"Know ye that the LORD he is God: it is he that made us, and not we ourselves..."  (Psalm 100: 3)

"No algorithm allows us to understand the compexity of living creatures...which owe their initial plausibility to the assumption that the physico-chemical world exhibits functional properties that in reality it does not possess."  (Marcel Schutzenberger)

The scope of natural causes is inadequate when it comes to evidence for the creative acts of God as they are observed in the natural world. Faith and the Biblical Scripture inform us that natural causes alone are insufficient to explain everything we see in the real world. The attempts by naturalistic scientists to explain all the vast complexity that is observed in nature are totally bankrupt of substance, and in reality rely on their own faith in naturalism. The ordering of DNA and its information content cannot be explained simply by appealing to nucleotide pairing which simply expresses the ordering.  C.S. Lewis observes "There is something which is directing the universe, and which appears to me as a law...I think we have to assume it is more like a can hardly imagine a bit of matter giving istructions."

Chapter 21: The Stretched-Out Universe
"He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion." (Jeremiah 10:12)

"Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth?
It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain..." (Isaiah 40:21-22)

The Biblical Sriptures make a scientifically verifiable statement, in fact a number of statements, that state that the heavens have been "stretched out".  Observational evidence that accorded with the Bible's centuries old statements regarding the expansion of the universe was discovered just over 100 years ago at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona.

Chapter 22: The Temperature of Creation
"Out of the south cometh the whirlwind: and cold out of the north." (Job 37:9)

"...and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof" (Psalm 19:6)

"...and they need no candle, neither light of the sin; for the Lord God giveth them light:..." (Revelation 22:5)

The disciplines of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics inform us that temperature is related to the motion of molecules.  The measured temperature of the universe is now about 2.73 degrees K.  This is consistent with an extreemely hot and dense creation event.  The Bible states that there was an actual beginning to this universe, and modern astronomy and cosmology has confirmed this Biblical statement.

Chapter 23: The Constants of Creation
"While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease." (Genesis 8:22)

"The Lord hath appeared of old to me, saying, Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love;..." (Jeremiah 31:3)

Fundamental constants are to be found at the foundations of physics.  There is currently no explanation for why the values of these constants are what they are.  The values seem to be precisely what they need to be to support human life. As for the future, we are told in the  book of Hebrews, speaking of the heavens, that “they shall be changed".  However, speaking of the Lord, we are told "but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail” (Hebrews 1:12).
The handiwork and constancy of God’s creation is a testament to the Lord’s constant faithfulness. We are told
that “nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which
is in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 8:39). God is truly constantly faithful to His people and He has promised to remain so throughout eternity.

Chapter 24: Reflections of Splendor
"God came from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran.  Selah.  His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.
And his brightness was as the light; he had horns coming out of his hand: and there was the hiding of his power." (Habakkuk 3:3-4)

"The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up.
From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." (Matthew 4:16-17)

"For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:"  (Ephesians 5:8)

We see by day by virtue of the reflected light of the sun. The behavior of light, be it emitted or reflected, is a fundamental area of physics.  And, the practical importance of visible reflected light impact us every day of our lives, most of the time without our giving the physical mechanisms any deeper thought.  It turns out that there is a tremendous amount of information contained within the spectral distribution of intensities of light.  This has been applied to many diverse areas of science including astronomy, medicine, agriculture, geology, meteorology, and others. 

Just as the moon does not have its own light, but reflects that of the sun, we also do not have our own glory or shine our own light. The Bible says (speaking of Christians) "But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." (2 Cor 3:18).    

Chapter 25: The Waters of Creation
"And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." (Genesis 1:2)

Water is important and prominent Biblically.  In fact, water is mentioned in the Bible prior to "Let there be light".  Water is, biologically speaking, the liquid of life, and has very special and unique chemical properties, some of which are reviewed in this chapter.  And, it satisfies our thirst.

And Jesus said unto them, "I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst." (John 6:35)

Chapter 26: The Paradoxical Universe

"Trust in the Lord with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding.  In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths."  (Proverbs 3:5-6)

At this time there are, to the author's knowledge, no confirmed contradictions between quantum theory and experiments in physics.  There are, however, paradoxes in the theory and experiments, that challenge common sense uinderstanding of what's actually going on at the quantum level.  In some experiments photons behave just like particles, and in other experiments they behave as if they were waves.  Both, apparently, are real.

Chapter 27: The Magnificent Creation
"The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handiwork." (Psalm 19:1)

Each scientific discovery of that we make about the universe increases the sense of wonder at the declaration of God's glory through His creation.  However, this is only for those with eyes to see. 

Chapter 28: His Mighty Torrential Rains
"God thundereth marvelously with his voice; great things doeth he, which we cannot comprehend." (Job 37:5)

"For he saith to the snow, Be thou on the earth; likewise to the small rain, and to the great rain of his strength. He sealeth up the hand of every man; that all men may know his work." (Job 37:6-7)

The premise of God's continued interractions with nature are a theme of Job.  God's hand is especially seen in the origins of biological complexity of the cell, for wihch there is no reasonable naturalistic explanation, and in the origin of the universe.  It is a mistake to assert or assert that all past origins events are explainable by means of current known physical processes.  The Bible clearly reveals that God created the universe, plants, animals and man, and sustains and governs nature. 

Chapter 29: Entropy and the Arrow of Time
"Martha sairh unto him, 'I know rhat he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day." (John 11:24)

"What man is he that liveth, and shall not see death? Shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave? Selah. (Psalm 84:48)

The forward motion of time is apparently intimately related to the extremely high order (low entropy) of the universe at its inception.  The improbability of the original state of the universe is so high as to virtually impossible to explain according to any known physical law, and points to the Creator as its source.  In light of this knowledge, to assert that we are here by chance has an element of irrationality about it. 

Chapter 30: The Sustained Creation

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him; and without Him was not anything made that was made."  (John 1:1-3 KJV)

"And he is before all things, and by him all things consist." (Colossians 1:17)

"Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last..." (Revelation 1:11)

The creation came into existence as a response to the Word of God, and continues to exist by Christ's power.  The creation is not self-existent.  And, there is a time scale to its existence that is in God's power, not man's. 

Chapter 31: Line Upon Line
"For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little:" (Isaiah 28:10)
"For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." (John 1:17)

Upon the maturing of the physical sciences in the 19th and 20th centuries, it became apparent that a single theory did not fit across all time, energy, mass, mass density and velocity scales of physics. Both Kepler and Newton's studies encompasses astronomical scales and effects, which are ideal for the study of gravity, and led to classical Newtonian physics.  Quantum mechanics and relativity were thrust upon science in the early twentieth century.  Physical properties are modeled at the sub-atomic, atomic, molecular, ensemble statistical, and larger scales.  So also are multiple levels of organization found in the biological world as well, and our study of these systems has progressed as we have developed finer and finer methods of observation, inlcuding electron microscopes that can observe extrremelfine details of biochemicals.  In some way, the interraction of the various physiological systems is orchestrated as a baby develops in the womb.

So also the progression of God's word to mankind proceeded through various stages until the coming of our Saviour Jesus Christ and grace for salvation, with a future hope and promise of eternal life.

Chapter 32: Where to Look

"I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help." (Psalm 121:1)

Perhaps the "unto the hills" that the psalmist is referring to carries with it the idea of a help that is beyond that which has any source in man's resources.  The Scripture goes on to say, in the next verse: " My help cometh from the Lord, which made heaven and earth."  (Psalm 121:2)

Chapter 33: The Big Creation
"And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now towards heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. 
And he believed in the Lord; and he counted it to him for righteousness." (Genesis 15:5-6)

"As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us." (Psalm 103:12)

Edwin Hubble in the 1920's discerned that distant nebulae were actually filled with stars as in our Milky Way Galaxy, and developed methods of estimating the distances to these nebulae and distant stars.  Astronomers over the last century have improved on these methods and have found that the universe is extremely large.  There are stars and galaxies of stars that are, apparently, billions of light years from Earth, a distance that is truly difficult or impossible for our minds to fathom. There is a transcendent message to such a magnificently large creation. In fact, the actual size of the universe is impossible for us to accurately measure, as the actual fabric of space goes beyond, far beyond, any capacity to measure the creation due to the limited speed of light.  The size of the universe reminds us that there is a much greater Creator who is responsible for the world, and that we neither control it nor even truly comprehend it. 

Chapter 34: The Extent of the Universe

"For thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy;..." (Isaiah 57:15)

An analogy that physicists use to help understand this is that the dimensions of space are like the surface of a sphere, which is finite in area and yet has no boundaries.  Within the Big Bang model, the notion of an unlimited spatial extent in all dimensions is not apparently supported by modern cosmology.

Chapter 35: The Created Creation
"Know ye that the Lord he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves...(Psalm 100:3)

Modern evidence from cosmology in no way contradicts, and in many ways supports the Biblical doctrine of creation.  The first law of thermodynamics states that matter-energy can neither be created nor destroyed.  It is clear that both mass and energy do exist, and so there needs to be a Source of the mass and energy that is above the observable laws of physics and that controls them. 

Chapter 36: The Heavens for Height
"For as the heavens are higher than the earth,
So are My ways higher than your ways,
And My thoughts than your thoughts." (Isaiah 55:9)

The height of the heavens above the rarth is used by the prophet Isaiah as an analogy to the disparity between the Lord's ways and thoughts and those of mankind. So, we might ask, how high are the heavens?  The immense distances in the universe are farther than we can really picture in our minds.


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